STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING STRESS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

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STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING STRESS
AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

BY
ABUKA GLORIA FITUMI
U2009/2545327

A RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING, FACULTY OF EDUCATION, UNIVERSITY OF PORT HARCOURT, NIGERIA

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN EDUCATION (B. SC. ED) IN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY, GUIDANCE AAND COUNSELING, UNIVERSITY OF PORT HARCOURT

AUGUST, 2014

 

 

ABSTRACT
The main purpose of this project work is to highlight the strategies for managing stress, among some selected secondary schools in Igala Mela Odolu Local Government Area of Kogi State. Apart from the fifteen secondary schools used for the study, personal interactions and interviews were made especially with those in the field to seek their opinion with regard to the strategies for managing stress among secondary school students. In the cause of this work, it reveals among others that stress can only be managed but cannot be wished away from student’s life. It has been discovered that stress has implications for students at any level, and that one can barely find a student without one form of stress or the other. Still, the study reveals that some stress students encounter today in their lives, are been cause by students themselves, while it is also paramount to have stress experts or teachers in secondary school to manage and identify students with stress and see how they can help them to manage it and finally there will be positive change on the part of the student whose stress is been identify quickly. In view of the above reasons, the researchers finally made some recommendations which specifically can be useful to the secondary school students, Government and parents in managing and identifying the various sources and levels of stress including its psychological and effects on the society.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Stress is one condition that has troubled humanity over the years. It is a disorder or reaction characterized by exhibition resulting from over work, anxiety, insomnia, depression and impairment in work performance. Its manifestations can be so confusing that people suffering from it hardly understand that it is stress they are suffering from so much that it is often time mistaken for tiredness. Due to its numerous and complex manifestations stress can be best described as no respecter of persons of various backgrounds, social class and status fall prey and are merciless handled by stress.
Health professionals and educationalist have consistently expressed worries in the every major health problems and pupil’ inability to cope with their studies in school is linked to stress. It is part of the reason for the problems caused by stress in that as a person faces stress that is ongoing and intense, his immune systems can be compromised to the extents that he becomes susceptible to illness; hence jeankong (1998) feels that chronic stress is like slow poison.
Rhetorically, many want find out the position of stress, that is the categories of person it is associated with either young persons. It is associated with young persons (boys or girl) old men or woman, educated, worked politicians, unemployed, teachers, students, pupils, clergymen, governors, and presidents, black or white races. Generally, from observation, stress is associated with all categories of persons which could result from relocation, interview, unemployment, the death of parents/ close ones, old age, retired, divorce, HIV/AIDS, injustice, early, marriage, poverty, weaning a new baby, social intervention, family life . Youth restiveness armed robbery attacks, terrorist attacks, fuel scarcity, amidic (2001).
Further ailment that have been linked to stress also include, allergies, asthma bock, neck, and shoulder pains, cold depression, diarrhea, fly, gastrointestinal problems insomnia, migrome, infertility, drop/hatred, rejection, punishment e.t.c
These conditions enumerated above are seen as problems because of the longer periods it turns to be terminated in one’s life hence stress needs attention on how people can overcome or manage it. Of all the multiple condition which can include stress, and of great number of persons who can suffer stress, students and those in the education sector stand out because of the age and physiological makeup of student, stress has frustrated many and made things difficult for many student so much the many have erroneously attributed their plight to metaphysical forces or their neighbors when originally the root cause of their problems is simply stress Despite the misery, frustration and hardship which stress has subjected students to, not much has been done as to enable students manage it. The research work is therefore born out of the desire to provide secondary school students in – I gala Mila ODoul Local government area of kogi state and general public skills and information on strategies for managing stress.
To enhance better awareness that could be of benefit to both students and others who may have the enthusiasm to work on stress, its symptoms, implications and how it could be managed effectively.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Stress has even for itself the name “a silent kill” and an ailment that does not respect any age or personality. But the high rate in which it affects students is alarming and signals severe problems for the future.
Part of the reason why stress associated with students need to taken seriously is that students are future work force in all ramifications and constitute leaders and engine of national development. Such strategic and enviable position of student needs to be jealously guided especially when the threat against them is stress which medical experts have claimed has no cure but can be managed with this as the case, it is necessary that students and the general public be provided with the relevant knowledge that can facilitate such management of stress for man’s sustainable growth and development.
1.3 purpose of the study
The purpose of carrying out this study is to investigating some strategies for managing stress among secondary school student in gala-mela Odolu Local Government Area of Kogi state.
Specifically the study is:
1. To identify stress and its symptoms
2. Types of stress
3. Curses of stress
4. Stress its positive and negative consequences
5. Stress and its implications for education
6. Strategies for managing stress
7. Highlight the consequences of stress on the society
8. Provide the general society especially stakeholders in the education sector with relevant information on stress
9. Stimulate further academic theorizing on stress
1.4 Research Question
In an attempt to look at the strategies for managing stress among secondary school students in Igala mela Local Government Area of Kogi State, the following research questions are considered relevant
1. What are the causes, sources of symptoms of stress among students?
2. Is stress associated with only young person?
3. Can stress have positive / negative consequences on persons including students? Or what are the consequences of stress on students?
4. Can stress be wished away from men or students life?
5. What are the strategies for managing stress among students?
1.5 Significance of the study
This research will be significant in a number of ways: on a broad note, the study will serve as a reference point for academic purposes to subsequent researcher including students, teachers, individuals and organizations in the same problem area. This is because such researcher may wish to obtain information from the theoretical and empirical interaction reviewed in the methodology of the research, the result and other relevant aspects of the work for purpose of improvement on their own studies.
It will provide students and general public with adequate information on how to manage the hydra-headed monster called stress. Relatively, the study will help in providing information concerning the true nature of stress or inevitability of stress in the life of individual. It will help teachers, students and all stare-holders in education with remedial measure for managing stress among the students. The study will help parents and school administrators as it can afford them better opportunities to understand their children when they are under the influence of stress.
It is the wish of the researcher that the finding may be of great help to the students, teachers, and individuals and also help in adding to exciting literate on the management of stress globally.
1.6 The Scope Study
Any good research has a certain area of coverage or covers a particular location. The scope of this study is limited to selected secondary school in Igala-Mela Odolu Local Government Area of Kogi State. The selected secondary schools are Twenty (20) schools only.
1.7 Definition of Terms
In this concluding segment of chapter one it will be appropriate to attempt to clarification of some of the key concepts;
i. Manage: this is to bring about succeed in accomplishing, or the ability to contrive to function, progress, or succeed, usually despite hardship or difficulty.
ii. Strategy: this is a plan designed for a particular purpose to work out, gain/arrived at a desired goal.
iii. Stress: this is a physical pressure, tension or weary resulting from problems in one’s life

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW
Scholars have extensively documented so much in the area of stress. As a tradition in research writing, this section shall be focused on such documentation by scholars and it can be handled under the following headings viz conceptual, theoretical and empirical.

2.1 Concept of Stress
One major area of concern to the health psychologist had been the issue of stress. Stress has been closely linked with major health problems and emotional strains, which have greatly disturbed mankind generally. Because of this, and added to the fact that stress is an integral part of human existence, scholars feel that intensive effort should be made to create better awareness about it among peoples so that they could its nature, its consequences and how to manage it in their daily living.
According to Ekwe (2000), “the fear is that even though stress can never be wished away in man’s life, and even though human being need some moderate level of stress to function effectively in certain situations, when it becomes too much and persistent it will cause severe damage in the psychological and physiological wellbeing of the person.
Thus every research and literacy work on stress has a primary motive of creating more awareness about the issue so as to help people develop ways of coping and maintaining good health.

2.2 What is Stress?
In desiring stress, two schools of thought have emerged while one group describes it in terms of cause (event or experience). The other says it is the emotional response due to an event called stressor (effect). According to Lahey (2003), stress is any event or circumstance that strains or exceeds a persons’ ability to cope. Similarly that stress is any force that when applied to a system causes some severe change of its original form and brings it to a disorganized form.
These definitions considered the event or circumstance itself as the stress. So, in cases of job, death of a loved one, accident etc, the stress is nothing else than the incident. This view does not consider the concept of stressor as being separate from stress itself.
Conversely, Santrock (2000) defined stress as “the response of individuals to the circumstances and event called stressors that threaten them and tax their coping abilities. In other words, stress is the response, which an individual makes when he is facing circumstances or events referred to as stressors which threaten his wellbeing and normal life patterns. Similarly, Whiteborn (2000) notes that stress is the unpleasant emotional reactions and responses an individual makes when he perceives an event to be threatening.
Reber and Reber (2001) in their second definition of stress observed that stress is a state of psychological tension produced by some forms of forces or pressure imposes on a person. In the same vein, Rechr and Newman (1978) defined stress as a condition of strain on somebody’s thought process, and physical condition that threatens the individual’s ability to cope with the environment. To Denga (1991), stress is a generalized non specific response of the body to physical and psychological demands made on it. In this case, the response comes in different forms and patterns in a simultaneous way. For instance, body response like headache, stomach upset body weakness and restlessness can all be experienced at the onset of stress (Selye, 1994). Ngoka (2000) describes stress as the response people make to environmental and internal demands to which individuals have to adjust. According to him, when the individual fails to adequately contain the needs and pressures placed on him, he instantly falls under stress: This view agrees with definition by McGrate (1976) that stress comes when an environmental situation is perceived to be posing a demand which proves that the person’s potentials and resources to cope are insufficient. All the above definitions point to the fact that stress is a bodily state and not external component of the environment. These views are based on the major postulations of Hans Selye, the man regarded as the founder of stress research. He described stress as the body responses to different conditions like fear, anger, emotion and other external factors hence, definition of stress as the wear and tear on the body due to much pressure imposed on it (Selye, 1974).
Amadi (2011) however, adopted the view of the second group which defined stress is an inevitable part of life which challenges the coping potentials and resources in every individual.

2.3 Causes of Stress
Stress can be caused by variety of things within and outsi8de an individuals’ environment German sociologist Sharon (1964) this is because people don’t understand how much stress an individual faces whether at work place, school, market, family. Bekre (1968). There are other causes of stress which human beings face in life like sickness, absence, high staff turnover, poor communication between teams, bullying, lack of feedback on performance at work, at sports, at academics etc. value contribution, technological change, lack of charity roles and responsibilities, dissatisfaction with non money benefits, working, long hours at work place, boring and mundane work, one-off incidents, uncomfortable work place and of training etc.

2.4 STRESS: It’s Positive And Negative Consequences
Some stress may be of the body to prepare it for certain challenges, so it is probably impossible to live without any stress. But too much stress,ecpecally if it is day-in, day-out, can cause nervous system. This is an essential part off “light or fight” response (ngoko, 2002) a well as stress triggered response in muscle, such as your heart, your autonomic nervous system sends signal to your hormonal systems, triggering the release of chemical messengers such as adrenalin. These are released into your blood stream and travel all ar5oudn your body contributing to the “fight or fight” by, for example making you more alert, boosting your blood stream. This result in a heightened or stressed state that prepares your body for optimum performance in dealing with the situation. The modern stress ever faced in our everday physical and emotional problems according to santrock (2000), some stress can response almost instantly to challenges. Many of its control mechanism happen without someone having to think about them. This involuntary control of things such as how fast your heart beats is achieved by a network of nerves called the autonomic nervous system. This is an essential part of “flight or fight” response(Ngoko, 2002) a well as stress triggered response in muscles, such as your heart, your autonomic nervous system sends signal to your hormonal systems, triggering the release of chemical messengers such as adrenalin. These are released into your blood stream and travel all ar5oudn your body contributing to the “fight or flight” by, for example making you more alert, boosting your blood stream. This results in a heightened or stressed state that prepares your body for optimum performance in deal with the situation. The modern stress ever faced in our everyday life such as deadlines at work or money troubles us do not really trigger a “ fight or flight” response. However, they do release the same stress hormones, and this natural reaction help us to work hard and achieve our aims and objectives in a faster way. Stress threatens an individual life when it is surrounded with circumstances it cannot respond to immediately. When an individual fails to adequately curtail the needs and pressure placed on him, he instantly falls under stress, when the environmental situation is perceived to be imposing a demand which proves that the person’s potentials and resources are insufficient. Stress is experienced by all categories of people, old and young, rich and poor, male and female, employed and non employed, literate and illiterate, the danger is that when it becomes excess for somebody to curtail it becomes injurious to the sufferer and his health. Here student who are among these people also suffer emotional trauma.

2.5 Types of Stress
While there are many sub-categories of stress according to Tseng and ITso(1977), the major ones can be broken down into:
Eustress: this is one of the helpful types of stress, it is the type of stress of stress experiment right before one has the need to exert physical force. It prepare the muscles, heart and mind for the strength needed for whatever is about to occur in our life . it can also apply to creative endeavor, when a person need to have some extra energy for creativity, esters kick into bring them the inspiration they need. (examples) an athlete will experience the strength that comes from esters right before he play a big game or enter a big competition. Because of esters , he immediately receives the strength that he needs to perform. When the body enters the flight to fight response, it will experience esters . The esters prepares the body to fight with or flee from an opposing danger, this type of stress will cause the blood to pump to the major muscles groups, and will increase the heart rate and blood pressure to increase. If event or danger passes, the body will eventually return to its normal state.
Distress: it is negative types of stress that the mind and body undergoes when the normal routine is constantly adjusted and altered. The mind is not comfortable with this routine and has the familiarity of a common routine. There are actually two ( 2) types of distress which are acute stress and chronic stress.
Acute stress: This comes immediately with a change of routine. It is an intense type of stress, but it passes quickly. Acute stress is the body’s way of getting a person to stand up and take inventory of what is going on, to –make sure that everything is alright.
Chronic stress: this occurs if there is a constant change of routine for a long period of time. This is the type of stress experienced by someone who constantly faces more job changes.
Hyper stress: this type of stress makes an individual to b very easily offended and also experience extremely physical sensitivity to a particular thing it also makes an individual blood pressure to be at high rate than the normal blood pressure which human are supposed to posses.
Hypostresss: this type of stress frustrates an individual with letter or no sign. It is a sign. It is a state in which people are worried all the time about their health and believe that they are not well when there is nothing wrong with them. There are other kind of stress according to Sharon (2001) which he refers to a man-made stress. These include:
Teacher induced stress: when a teacher wants his students to excel and get the best grade possible for them, and one could notice that the students will face some kind of pressure which leads to stress.
Peer induced stress: in some schools, peers have more freedom and are more rebellious in nature and if their fellow peer does not join them in whatever they are doing, the hesitate is made to be under pressure which automatically leads to stress.
Stress and its symptoms:
According to James (1999), every one reacts to stress differently, but there are some common effects which every human being posses when witnessing or experiencing stress. In time of extreme stress, people may tremble, hyperventilate (breath faster and deeper than normal) or even vomit. For people with asthma, stress can trigger an asthma attack. (1984) observed that people who are chronically stressed or have been through an extremely difficult or violent experience such as witnessing a violent death or disaster, being involved in a serious can crash or surviving fire hardly survive.
According to Aron (1997), stressed individual also feel a mixture of emotions such as fear, shame, depression, guilt or anger, and recurrent memories or images that may be honourable or haunting or lead to nightmares. These feelings last for weeks, months or even years after the traumatic event that triggered them, warn that there is special psychological emotional damage. Argyris et al., (1964) observed that the following symptoms are likely to be associated with people under stress. They include, periods of irritable or anger, apathy or depression. Constant anxiety, national behaviors, loss of appetite, lack of concentration, loss of sex drive, increased smoking, drinking or taking recreational drugs, most of these are found internally. These are also some physical effects observed in individuals under stress which include; excessive tiredness, skin problems such as eczema, aches and pain from intense muscles, including neck aches, backaches and tension, headaches, increased pain from arthritis and other conditions, hearts palpitations, feeling sick, stomach problems and missed periods in women etc.

2.7 Empirical and Theoretical Study of Stress
According to Anyanwu (1995), education helps to learn in order to adjust to and live with situation at any given time and place. He identified some emotional problems that affect the education of students and their guardians like poor finances. In the same vein, Bakare (1997) figure lack of pocket and inability to adjust to new environment as it affect the students’ concentration among secondary students. It leads to students poor and ineffectiveness at school.
Cohen (1999) has found that continued exposure to stress procedures effects that appears only after stimulation is terminated. He added that the effects of stress on students is prolong, the intent or zeal to acquire knowledge or study will terminate psychologically, which will affect secondary students. Another study by Halahan and Moos (1996) in which personality coping and family resources in stress resistance were evaluated, finding showed that the use of avoidance coping and the availability of family support jointly help protect students from negative psychological consequences of stress. The stress coping strategies among the male and female second year bachelor of education degrees students in a college was investigated by Ekwe (2000). From a population of 219 second year students, 163 was drawn and used as sample. With validated instruments, subjects perceived academic and financial problems as stressors. The study found among other things that:
1. Significant difference exists on how girls perceived academic problems (stressors) and how boys did.
2. How boys and girls perceived financial problems as source of stress did not differ. Hence, he noted that male and female students need counseling as stress management. The exploitation of other support system li8ke friends, course mate, fairly member and lecturers to cope with stress was also emphasized. Stress according to Tseng and ltsu (1980) produces effects such as frustration, pressure sensory overloading conflict, and lowered self esteem and so on, pressure from fairly environment such as inadequacy of diet, lack of accommodation, finance unhappiness, freedom in the home parental neglect can lead to someone’s psychological damage which can affect the students negatively. Rostow (199) is of the view that the resulting inflation from battered economic has made the physiological needs like food and shelter unaffordable by the majority of people. He further said that, each culture has a set of expectation for young males, older female and males which provide expectation (idea to strive). The inability of failure to provide these basic needs in the home by parent which includes food, clothing, school fees, etc. Bring unhappiness to school children, hence, causing some degree of stress.
3. The students may feel neglected and this may lead to mischief in order to satisfy the physiological needs. The young students could resort to stealing and immoral rebellious in nature and if their fellow peer does not ajoin them in whatever they are doing, the hesitation is made to be under pressure which automatically leads to stress.

2.8 Appraisal of Literature Review

The review was intended to expose the researcher to relevant literature on “stress” among secondary school students. This chapter begins with concept of stress, what is stress? Causes of stress, stress: it’s positive and negative consequences, types of stress, stress and its symptoms, empirical and theoretical study of stress.
Finally, the exposition of the symptoms of stress itself and its sources will help secondary school students themselves, school administrators, counselors, teachers, government and parents to be aware of the various sources and levels of stress also its effects on them psychologically.

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction
This section of the study focuses on the methodology used by the researcher.
It is written under the following headings:
1.0 Research design
1.1 Population of study
1.2 Sample and sampling technique
1.3 Research instrument
1.4 Method of data collection
1.5 Data analysis

3.1 Research Design
The research is a descriptive survey.
Since the researcher is concern with strategies for managing stress among secondary school students in Igala-Mela Odolu Local Government Area of Kogi state. It involve the assessment and descriptive of phenomenon (stress) that has already occurred. In addition to questionnaire which is the main instrument, the researcher also used Oral interview and direct observation.

3.2 Populat6ion of the study
The population of this study comprises of teachers and students in Igala-Mela Odolu Local Government Area of Kogi State estimated at 13,000 people. Total of 100 teachers from 20 secondary schools and 12,000 students from the selected 20 schools.
The main research instrument employed in the study consists of Questionnaire. The items of the questionnaire were based on the research question, the questionnaire was made up of two sections A and. Section ‘a’ elicited information on personal data of the respondents while section B drew information on strategies for managing stress among secondary school students in Igala-mela Odolu Local Government Area of Kogi state.The instrument rating scale has three (3) columnsv,2: Yes, No and indifference.

3.3 Method of Data collection
Data were collected directly from respondents by the researcher on the sport. The reason for this was to guide against interference from external forces as well as to ensure that none was missing.

3.4 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
Data were analyzed in tables using percentage and in strict adherence to the research question earlier posed in chapter one. One table represents responses to one research question.


CHAPTER FOUR

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
In this chapter, the researcher present the data obtained from the survey and analysis.tem with particular reference to research questions earlier posed in chapter one. The percentage is calculated by multiplying the frequency by 100 over the cumulative that is, the total number of responses receives .Thus
Frequency×100
Cumulative
The subsequent table shows the responses to question which were meant to elicit information concerning the questions.

4.1 QUESTION 1: Can the death of parents/loved one cause stress to students?
This question was answered using one item on the research instrument. The result is as presented below.
TABLE 4.1
S/N Item No. Of Respondents Frequency Of Responses Total
Yes % No Indiff %
Can the death of parents/love ones cause stress to students? 100 90 90 10 10 – – 100

From the table above, 90 respondents representing 90% agreed that the death of parents/loves ones could cause stress to students, while 10 respondents representing 10% disagreed. By this result, the death of parents/love ones or any such unpleasant situation can cause stress

4.2 Question 2: Dose All Categories of Persons Including Students Face Stress?
This question was answered using item on the research instrument. The result is presented below:
TABLE 4.2 People that face stress
S/N Item No. Of Respondents Frequency Of Responses Total
Yes % No Indiff %
Do all categories of persons including students face stress? 100 70 70 25 25 5 5 100

From the table above, 70 respondents representing 70% agreed that categories of person including students face stress, and 25 respondents representing 25%objected to it, while 5 respondents representing 5% was undecided.
By the results, every persons including students face stress, irrespective of their social, political, religious and economic background.

4.3 Question 3: Can Stress Lead to Poor Attention Reducing the Alertness of An Individual (Students)
This question was answered using one item on the research instrument. The results are as presented below:
Table 4.3
S/N Item No. Of Respondents Frequency Of Responses Total
Yes % No Indiff %
Can stress lead to poor attention thereby reducing the alertness of an individual (students)? 100 65 65 35 35 – – 100

From the table above, 65 respondent representing 65% agreed that stress could lead to poor attention thereby reducing their alertness of students while 35 respondents representing 35% disagreed to the opinion. But this result, stress can lead to poor attention to instruction by students.
4.4 Question 4: Can Stress Be Wished Away From Man’s Life Or Society?
This question was answered using one item on the research instrument. The results are as presented below.

Table 4.4
S/N Item No. Of Respondents Frequency Of Responses Total
Yes % No Indiff %
Can stress be wiped away from man’s life or society? 100 24 24 70 70 6 6 100

From the table above, 7o respondents representing 7o% disagreed that stress cannot be wished away from man’s life or society, while 24 respondents representing 24% agreed to the opinion and 6 representing 6% was undecided. By this result, stress cannot be wished away from life of a man or individual rather individuals can be provided information on how to manage stress in their lives.
4.5 Question 5: Can Stress Be Managed Through The Control Of Adrenalin In The Body?
This question was answered using one item on the research instrument. The result are presented blow.
Table 4.5
S/N Item No. Of Respondents Frequency Of Responses Total
Yes % No Indiff %
Can stress be managed through the control of adrenalin in the body? 100 84 84 16 16 – – 100

From the table above, 84% respondents representing 84%agreed that stress could be manage though. The control of adrenalin in the body, while 16 respondents representing 16% disagreed with the opinion.
By this result, stress could be well managed through the control of adrenalin the body causes Hypertension, stroke and other disease that could result to untimely death.

 

CHAPTER FIVE

DISCUSSION ON CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATION AND LIMITATIONS
With reference to chapter one, the basis of this research work is to unveil the strategies for managing stress among students in lgala- Mela odolu local Government Area of kogi state.
Therefore, the intension of the researcher in this chapter is to present the result obtained from the analysis of data based on the research questions in chapter one. This chapter is therefore divided into six subheadings as followings:
5.0 Discussion of Findings.
5.1 Conclusion
5.2 implications of the findings
5.3 Recommendations
5.4 Suggestions

5.0 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
The purpose of the study as earlier is to find out strategies for managing stress among secondary school students in legal- Marla O’Doul Local Government Area of Kopi state in the course of the study, information was collected from secondary school teachers in the Local Government Area through the Twenty (2o) selected secondary school in that Area. Questionnaires with 34 questions were administered to the teachers. 100 question were sent out for which all were properly filled and returned the questionnaires in line with the significance of the study. Data collected were analyzed using simple percentage.
The findings of the work reveals among other things that stress can only be managed but wished away in the life of student. This revelation extends to other individuals.

5.1 CONCLUSION
In the course of this study, the researcher discovered the following:
i. The death of parents/ ones of students 0r similar unpleasant circumstance can cause stress for students.
ii. All students irrespective of socioeconomic status or background suffer one degree of stress on the other.
iii. Stress contributes to student’s poor attention in class.
iv. Stress cannot be wished away in the life of student. This by extension implies that stress cannot be wished away I the life of the stress can be managed through the control of body adrenalin.

5.2 IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS
In view of the foregoing discussions the findings of this study have the following implications.
i. Stress has big implications for student at all level of their educational pursuit.
ii. All students irrespective of background have or manifest one type of stress or the other.
iii. Stress has positive as well AS negative consequences for individuals.
iv. Early detection of stress among students is a survey of making adjustment.
v. Stress can be managed among students.

5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS
Realistically, as a student, you can’t expect to make it through school without having to deal with some king of stress, granted that too much stress can oppressive “more oppression may make a wise one act crazy but students should not let stress dive them crazy. So the key is learning to mange stress effectively, hence the following recommendations is made.
i. Identify The Specific Cause Of Stress: As a student you cannot conceal yourself from oppressive stress on less you first indentify the most like cause of stress, so to know which stress factor affects you most.

ii. Do Research: For example, if a heavy load of homework is stressing as a student, research the suggestion “when can I find time to do my home work”, you can find helpful advice from professions who are authorities in the field of stress.

iii. Play You Response: if you are stressed over how your classmate will react when you ask him or her to assist in your studies, don’t wait until the crisis arises to think of what you will say or how you will react. You have to be prepared before the situation arose so as to decide how you are going to explain yourself and the condition. You also think a hand about what question you will fact, and prepare an answer to the question.

iv. Don’t Procrastinate Involving In Counseling Exercise: Few problems will disappear if you ignore them. Instead, they usually become worse. This can increase your stress become identifying yourself as such as soon as possible can be real safeguard. Right at the start of each school year, try to initiate a conservation about some subjects that you know would give you chance to explain, you will found that the longer you waited to identify yourself wit5h the subject, the harder it become, it will really help when you made your mind or stand known and then olive up to your ideas throughout the year.

v. Ask For Help: Even the strongest weight- lifter has his limits, and as a student do too. But you don’t have to carry the burden by yourself. You can talk to your parents, teachers, colleagues, or ever people that are matured than you. Discuss it with them and they might be able to help you cope with some of the pressures.

vi. Your Behaviours: As a student, work on effective time management e.g. plan ahead aloe enough time to get task done, to get task done, be time on a planner chart, make to do list and set priorities. Respond assertively to people if you judge that to be your best option at the time. Tell them what you think and feel instead of “stewing” and stressing our” or aggressively trampling on others. Find ti8me for support from your family, friends, lecturers or counselors rather than “bottling up” your feelings, talking with someone can make things stressful time, avoid contact with negative arranged a balanced lifestyle, build in recreation and relaxation, out back excessive alcohol, caffeine and other drugs and give yourself as a student reward for achievement.
vii. Your Thinking: As a student, focus on what you can control, and don’t waste time and energy on what you can’t control. Think positively about yourself your achievements and your response to demand, coach yourself to cope as well as you can with the pressure of your academic work. Make perspective work for yourself by finding different way of understanding what is happening to you.

5.4 Suggestions for Further Research
Having enlisted the limitation of the study, the researcher therefore suggests that further investigation be carried out on how to manage stress among teacher in primary/secondary primary school in Iga1a-Me1a Odu1u Local government area of kogi state and stress manifestation among male and female student in secondary school in kogi state.

5.5 Limitations
On the account can this study claim to be hundred percent error-free. In other words, errors are likely to be found in the study since there is no perfection in humanity. Baridam (1990) “every researcher has certain limitations which the researcher has established or recognized”. In the area of data collections, primary and secondary sources were used. In the area of filling of the questionnaire by respondents, the limitations might be equally serious.
REFERENCE
Alexandria, C. C. (1984). Contemporary Human Behaviour. New York Press.
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