BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS (BV); CAUSES, SYMPTOMS & TREATMENT

 health sc

INTRODUCTION

Clue cells are epithelial cells covered with bacteria. They are a medical sign of bacteria vaginosis. These epithelial cells are formed of cells that line the cavities in the body and also cover flat surfaces.

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) or very uncommonly vaginal Bacterial is a disease of the vagina caused by bacterial. According to the U.S center for disease control and prevention (CDC), risk factors of BV include douching and having new or multiple sex partners; although it is unclear what role sexual activity plays in the development of BV

Causative Agent

A healthy vagina normally contains many microorganisms, some of the most common ones are. Lactobacillus species. The microorganisms involves in BV are very diverse and include Gardnerella vaginalis, mycoplasm hominis etc. One of the most causes of BV is douching, which alter the vaginal flora and predisposes woman to developing BV. Although BV can be associated with sexual activity, there is no clear evidence of sexual transmission.

PATHOGENESIS

The mechanism that allows this mobilucus spp to cause disease is not known.

 EPIDERMIOLOGY

The disease is most common in sexually active women and sometimes occurs in children who have been sexually abused and new sex partner also increase the risk.

 SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

– Abnormal homogenous off –white vaginal discharge (especially after vaginal intercourse) that may be accompanied by an unpleasant (usually fishy) smell.

– Pains or redness

– Mild itching can sometime occur.

COMPLICATION

– Pregnant women with BV are at high risk of preterm delivery.

– BV increases the risk of becoming infected with genital   herpes, gonorrhea etc.

– Miscarriage during the first 23 weeks.

DIAGNOSIS

To make a diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis, a swab from inside the vagina should be obtained. These swabs should be tested for:

  • A characteristic “fishy” odor on wet mount. This test, called the whiff test, is performed by adding a small amount of potassium hydroxide to a microscopic slide containing the vagina discharge. A characteristic fishy odor is considered a positive bacterial vaginosis.

Gram stain

An alternative is to use a Gram –stained vaginal smear, with the Hay/Ison criteria or the Nugent criteria.

 PREVENTION

– Do not Douche.

– Limit the number of sexual partners

– Use of condoms for male partners on women with recurrent   BV

– Using strong detergents to wash your under wears.

TREATMENT

– Metronidazole 500mg orally twice a day once every 12hours    for 7 days.

– Clindamycin cream 2%, one full applicator (5g) intra     vaginally at bedtime for 7 days or

– Metronidazole gel 0.75%, one full applicator (5g) intra     vaginally twice a day for 5 days or

– Metronidazole 2g orally in a single dose or

– Clindamycin 300mg orally twice a day for 7 days

RECOMMENDATION

During the therapy with metronidazole alcohol should not be consumed, and also during therapy with clindamycin cream latex condoms should not be used, wait at least one week after treatment before having sex.

 Conclusion

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of vaginalis in women of child bearing age. BV represents a complex change in the vaginal flora characterized by a reduction in concentration of the normally dominant hydrogen peroxide producing lactobacilli and an increase in concentration of other organism, practically Gardnerella vaginalis.      

 

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